Afrika Global Network (AGN)
The Struggle for the Future of Afrika and the black World
By Cde Senator Chen Chimutengwende, Chairman of Afrika Global Network (AGN)
This paper is about the struggle for the future of Afrika and the Black World in the context of world capitalism versus global revolutionary ecosocialism. It explains how far each of these two ideologies causes or promotes or tolerates or effectively fights against imperialism, neo-colonialism, oppression, exploitation, corruption, racism, gender inequality, the poverty of the overwhelming majority of the people in the world, and the massive destruction of the environment leading to climate change.
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The paper explains why and how the international black liberation process should continue unabated and as a new stage or phase of the struggle in this post-colonial and post-civil rights era. This new phase of the struggle is what is often referred to as the Second Liberation Struggle of Afrika and the Black World. The main objectives of the Second Liberation Struggle are to strive for revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist unity and to fight for the total and irreversible liberation and empowerment of the overwhelming majority of the black people who remain impoverished and disempowered all over the world. This can only be fully achieved and thereafter remain secure and irreversible through the total destruction of world capitalism and its complete replacement by global revolutionary ecosocialism.
The term “ecosocialism” means scientific socialism that unequivocally, consistently and openly insists that the environmental issue (climate change) should become and remain one of the major focuses of the worldwide revolutionary struggle. This applies to both the theory and practice of the revolution, and to both before and after the destruction of the enemy system, which is capitalism and whose policies or products include imperialism, oppression, exploitation, corruption, gender inequality, racism, ethnic and regional chauvinism and conflicts, the strategy and tactics of divide and rule, permanent poverty for the overwhelming majority of the people in the world, and the massive destruction of the environment, which causes the deadly climate change. Ecosocialists are people who consider themselves to be revolutionary socialists and uncompromisingly support the total liberation of the human race from capitalism through class struggle. At the same time, they also work without any prevarication for the speedy reversal of the environmental degradation and for the sustainability of Mother Earth. Ecosocialism is the only term at this point in history that gives a more appropriate and fuller picture of what the revolution is all about in this 21st century than any other word.
This paper was produced as the first part of the Research Project of the Afrika Global Network (AGN). The paper is a summary of the book that is going to be published as the second part of the Project. The paper and the book also aim at showing why and how the success of the Second Liberation Struggle can and must ensure that it becomes a monumental contribution to the speedy, shattering and irreversible advent of the global ecosocialist era. AGN is an independent, revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist network. It carries out research and mass dissemination of information with the aim of vigorously promoting the relentless continuation of the international black liberation struggle in this current era. Another major aim of AGN is to continuously explain why and how both revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and global revolutionary ecosocialism can and should be fully accepted and strictly followed as the essential guide and the inviolable objective for the struggle for the future of Afrika and the Black World.
If the objectives of the Second Liberation Struggle are not consistently and tirelessly pursued to their logical conclusion, then it will merely mean the replacement of one black capitalistic ruling faction by another. This will also mean the consolidation of the oppressive and exploitative system, which is capitalism. In that case, the socio-economic conditions of the overwhelming poor majority will remain stagnant or even get worse. If, as a result of the struggles of the people or for any other reason, their conditions of life get better, that improvement will remain insignificant and the enemy system will also always be trying to reverse such gains. Capitalist democracy means the majority of the people will always remain politically and economically powerless and poor. The rich ruling class minority, for its own benefit, will always control the economy and state power. The liberation process has to continuously go through countless battles and the revolutionary gains and victories should be clearly aimed at establishing the ecosocialist system. In order for ecosocialism to be protected, consolidated and to prevent its internal degeneration, it needs continuous class struggle from the beginning to the end of the ecosocialist era.
The Second Liberation Struggle is the black struggle of the 21st century, and this also means the post-colonial and post-civil rights era. The liberation struggle should always be viewed and organized as a permanent process. It is not an event or something that comes to an end. The struggle goes on endlessly from one phase to another, from one victory to another, from one form to another, from one level to another and from one era to another. What comes to an end is a stage or phase or programme or level of the struggle. Being a new phase of the struggle in a new era, the Second Liberation Struggle, like any other revolutionary stage, requires as a prerequisite, an up-to-date and relevant revolutionary vision; a corresponding mission and a set of objectives; and, the appropriate strategies and methods of struggle.
This means at every stage or phase of every struggle, new literature is always required for the purpose. Such literature should be updated regularly by different revolutionary writers with the aim of explaining new ideas or developments, giving new information and supporting the old but relevant ideas and theories with new evidence, arguments and examples. The aim should always be to convince more and more people and win them over to the struggle. At the same time, such literature should also aim at enhancing or strengthening the ideological clarity, commitment and capacities of the old cadres and their organizations. As a result, AGN established the Research Project for the purpose of making a contribution to the provision of such a prerequisite. The Project aims at producing the details, the analysis and the roadmap for this new phase of the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist struggle for the future of Afrika and the Black World.
In other words, the Project makes the case; spells out the objectives, the guiding principles and the vision; and provides the basis for the programme of action for the Second Liberation Struggle. The aim of the Project was to produce a simple and convincing paper that would serve as a summary of a new and up-to-date revolutionary handbook for Pan-Afrikanist movements, organizations, parties, unions, institutes, associations, groups and any other interested people all over the world. The paper and the book are primarily addressed to all activists and supporters of the black struggle, and secondly to any other people internationally who may wish to deepen their understanding on the nature and processes of the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist struggle.
Interested liberationists are hereby encouraged to form discussion or study or research or activist information groups with about five to ten people. Such groups could operate either independently or as outfits of existing revolutionary organizations, parties, unions, etc. They may study this paper and later the book as part of the revolutionary literature that may help to clarify, guide, stimulate, re-intensify and re-energize the struggle for the future of Afrika and the Black World. From time to time, such groups could report to larger audiences internally within their organizations or nationally or internationally, or report to all of them simultaneously. These groups could also serve as think-tanks or activist information centres (agitational propaganda outfits for the revolutionary struggle). The paper is initially being sent to at least 3000 people all over the world and they include Members of Afrikan Parliaments, media practitioners, participants of recent international black political conferences and mailing lists of interested Pan-Afrikanist organizations and publications. The paper will also be widely available on the internet. Since the proposed book is based on this paper, any comments, suggestions, corrections and criticisms from the people who will have read this paper will be most welcome as their feedback will be useful in the production of the final manuscript of the book.
During the second half of the 20th century, Afrika and the rest of the Black World experienced the highly successful conclusion to the struggle of the pre-independence and pre-civil rights era, which is hereinafter referred to as the previous era. The struggle of this previous era may, for convenience purposes, be referred to also as the First Liberation Struggle of Afrika and the Black World. Its objectives were the abolition of slavery, colonialism, anti-black racism, the achievement of independence for the colonies, and the gaining of full civil rights for black people in racist western capitalist countries. The successful end of the First Liberation Struggle brought about the post-colonial and post-civil rights era, which is hereinafter referred to as the current era. This also came with its own new stage or phase of the liberation process which is what has come to be known, for convenience purposes, as the Second Liberation Struggle of Afrika and the Black World.
AGN and its Research Project emanated from the painful realization that in this current era, the overwhelming majority of the people in Afrika and the Black World still outrageously remain impoverished, oppressed, exploited; and racially marginalized, manipulated, discriminated, disadvantaged, neglected, traumatized and de-humanized by world capitalism as the enemy system. As a result, this black majority is still suffering from lack of and is desperately struggling for basic and comprehensive socio-economic human rights that include food security; clean and safe water; decent and affordable housing; affordable public transport; affordable energy; full employment; compulsory free basic education; and, free health care. In order to ensure the successful establishment, survival and the growth of such a basic rights system, the poor majority also needs to be in a state in which there will be adequate laws and tight checks and balances against corruption and the abuse of power by people with senior positions in society; and, maximum mass participation and control at all levels and in all aspects of the decision-making processes. This will also require people’s democracy and ecosocialism based on continuous class struggle to be fully established in order for these rights to remain in place and to be sustainable.
Lack of this basic rights system is in spite of the fact that about 50 years ago, most former colonies achieved “national independence” and black people in racist “advanced” capitalist countries also gained their “civil rights” at the time. The fact that Afrika is the richest continent in the world in terms of natural resources also cannot make much difference to the poverty of the black majority as long as capitalism remains the ruling ideology in Afrika and the world.
Under world capitalism, the imperialists will continue to control the economies including the natural resources and the international trade of the former colonies, and the foreign capitalists remain the major beneficiaries. They also do not keep their profits in the banking system of the countries where they operate, but in foreign banks. Being the co-opted junior partners and/or quislings of the international capitalists, the black capitalistic ruling “elites” who are there to co-operate with this plunder, are also beneficiaries in the countries concerned. They also prefer to keep their loot in foreign banks. The role of such black capitalistic ruling “elites” is central to the imperialist and neo-colonialist scheme of things. Their existence as part of the world capitalist ruling forces is there to ensure the survival and growth of this iniquitous capitalist system whereby the rich minority will continue to ruthlessly and corruptly get rich at the expense of the state and the poor majority. The ruling “elites” carry out their role in accordance with the principles of the capitalist system to which they consciously or unconsciously subscribe, and this intensifies black-on-black oppression and exploitation. This is why the Second Liberation Struggle exists as the movement of revolutionary movements or parties for the total and irreversible liberation and empowerment of the overwhelming majority of the black people worldwide.
The establishment of this basic rights system leading to the eradication of poverty cannot be carried out successfully if it is left entirely to voluntary and private charity. In the modern world, only the state can effectively, successfully and legally shoulder the responsibility nationally for the mobilization of adequate funds for the purpose, handle the required centralized administration, and uphold the necessary constitutional and legal protection for such a basic rights system that is meant to last. If the state does not take full responsibility, the establishment of the basic rights system and the eradication of poverty will not take place. As to whether or not a state can financially afford to adequately pay for all these basic and comprehensive human rights depends on its ideology, priorities, and the nature of the ownership and management of its economy. If the economy and the priorities of the state are capitalist, then its national leadership will not be able to understand or accept the need for the state to finance the basic rights system. This is because the profits from the economy will be reserved mainly for the private use, corruption, mismanagement, comfort and pleasure of the parasitic rich ruling class minority. However, there are some countries that may wish to implement such policies and yet they may be handicapped by special circumstances that may include economic and political instability, foreign hostilities, sanctions and other regime change manoeuvres against them. In such countries, the inability to pay would be a temporary situation.
The overwhelming majority of black people are an integral part of the worldwide overwhelming majority of all races that are found in all capitalist-ruled countries. They all have to endure the excruciating and endless process of oppression and exploitation under the capitalist system. However, the majority of the black people do not only suffer from the class nature of the capitalist system, they also suffer from imperialism, neo-colonialism, anti-black racism, and the resultant colonial and slave mentality. At the same time, it must be noted that the class system is also being vigorously and fast consolidated in the black-ruled countries and in the black Diasporan communities. This is as a result of the co-option of the local “elites” into world capitalism through neo-colonialism, subtle racism, paternalism, and colonial and slave mentality. The development and consolidation of the capitalist class system in Afrika and the Black World is the basis for the development of class struggle therein. It must always be re-emphasized that it is impossible to successfully carry out a true ecosocialist revolution and thereafter to prevent its degeneration without consistent and continuous class struggle until the end of the ecosocialist era.
It must also be noted that there has always been three main schools of thought in the Pan-Afrikanist movement internationally. The first school of thought is for people who consciously or unconsciously support capitalism especially if it is prepared to accommodate the black capitalistic leadership or “elites”. They believe the liberation struggle ended with the advent of independence and the achievement of some civil rights for black people in the Diaspora. The struggle of such Pan-Afrikanists is only against anti-black racism and is for fast wealth accumulation by most of the black leadership, which leads to black-on-black oppression and exploitation in alliance with the imperialists. The supporters of the second school of thought are against imperialism, neo-colonialism, racism and Zionism. The third school of thought is against capitalism, all its policies and is for socialism/ecosocialism based on class struggle. In Afrika, one of the earliest and most effective practitioners and writers of this third school of thought was Kwame Nkrumah who strongly advocated for revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and scientific socialism. As was the case in the First Liberation Struggle, supporters and cadres of the second and the third schools of thought usually work together in the Second Liberation Struggle.
During this previous era, Pan-Afrikanism and its struggle grew into an invincible and victorious international force. The enemy system was defeated in battle and this forced it to change its strategies and tactics, but it managed to retain its original content although in a modified manner. The new development enabled capitalism to continue to control the world mainly for the benefit of the western ruling classes and the co-opted ruling “elites” in the former colonies. In order to survive, the system was forced to adopt the neo-colonialist strategy of co-opting the majority of the leadership in most of the former colonies. As a result, in the current post-colonial and post-civil rights era, the enemy system became both foreign and local. This is part of the divide-and-rule strategy of capitalism. All this also supports the view that the struggle should always be treated as a process and not an event that belongs to just one historical period. It is a process that belongs not only to the previous and current eras, but also to many more eras to come.
The intrinsic nature of the enemy system, its flexibility, and its capacity and will to survive on one hand, and the nature of the response against it on the other hand, all demand that the anti-capitalist revolution should be treated and organized as a permanent process. By its very nature, and using its survival strategy of flexibility, the enemy system will also always try to turn its own defeat into its own victory, and will always be against the liberationist aspirations, interests and needs of the overwhelming majority of the people globally. It was the nature of this enemy system that gave rise to Pan-Afrikanism and its struggle. Pan-Afrikanism as a liberation cause and its struggle will always exist as long as the enemy system exists. The changed strategies and tactics of the enemy system together with both the old and the new problems in the current era require a new stage or phase of the liberation process.
The Second Liberation Struggle should be waged on all fronts, at all levels, from all directions, using many possible methods of the struggle and by all possible and different forces that may include grassroots groups, local organizations, national organizations, movements, political parties, institutions like parliaments, anti-imperialist governments, international movements and inter-governmental organizations. This may be by way of alliances or united fronts, or some form of organized combination of efforts by many of such revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist forces. The enemy system should be overwhelmed and defeated by all means necessary and as early as possible.
In most Afrikan countries, the working class is still a very small percentage of the population and has very little ideological consciousness. However as time goes on, both its percentage and its revolutionary consciousness are bound to grow. The problems and the issues that affect the working class are always there to raise its consciousness, given the correct leadership. It is a fundamental duty of all revolutionaries to wholeheartedly support and participate in the politicization of the working class. This is because in order for the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist revolution to fully and irreversibly succeed, the working class will have to play the leading role. The working class will need to do this in alliance with the peasantry and the revolutionary intellectuals.
Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism is not an ideology but an essential and indestructible weapon for mass mobilization and co-ordination for the international black liberation struggle. This is because of the anti-black white racism in the history of black people worldwide. Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism politically unites black people internationally for their struggle. It guides the struggle and enhances its capacity to effectively score more and more liberation victories. Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism strongly supports global revolutionary ecosocialism as the first objective of the world revolution.
As long as world capitalism has not been totally destroyed in the world and has not been completely replaced by global revolutionary ecosocialism, the liberation process of any country or a group of countries or race or class or sex anywhere in the world will always remain highly vulnerable, insecure and reversible. This means if capitalism remains the ruling ideology in the world, the countries in which the capitalists have been defeated will continuously face the danger of having their ecosocialist liberation process being infiltrated, seriously distorted ideologically, fatally isolated and eventually reversed at some stage. Such a negative development is caused by a combination of internal and external capitalist and imperialist forces. The revolutionary struggle, therefore, must be treated and waged as a permanent process at national, regional, continental and global levels simultaneously.
2. World Capitalism
In order to fully understand the nature of the ever continuing socio-economic crisis and the plight of the overwhelming majority of the black people worldwide and how their total and irreversible liberation process can be fully achieved, one must have a thorough understanding of capitalism because it is the system that is governing the world today. One will also need to fully understand ecosocialism as the proposed alternative system, for which the revolutionary forces are fighting.
In other words, when trying to understand the nature of the plight of the overwhelming majority of the impoverished majority of the black people worldwide, one will need to examine the future of Afrika and the Black World in the context of world capitalism versus global revolutionary ecosocialism. This should logically and scientifically explain the question of which ideology is most well-placed to support and manage the total and irreversible liberation and empowerment of the overwhelming majority of the impoverished black people worldwide in this era.
It must be noted that most countries of Afrika and the Caribbean are ruled by the black capitalistic ruling “elites” and their supporters. They consciously or unconsciously rule their countries in accordance with the ideological dictates of this very same system of capitalism which they shamelessly practice. In order to accumulate personal wealth by abusing state power and at the expense of the poor majority, they are not ashamed to operate as junior partners and/or quislings of international capitalists and imperialists who are their former colonizers and slave masters. This is also why the black liberation process needs to be swiftly developed to class struggle in order to remove from power both the black ruling “elites” and their capitalist ideology.
The world is normally what it is at any given period in its history because of the nature of the socio-economic system which governs it, and currently this ruling system is world capitalism. What the system does or does not do for whom or against who are fundamental issues in the world. The system determines the way of life, the nature and level of freedom or liberation of the world’s inhabitants and how the ecological environment will be protected or destroyed. It determines whether or not there will be racism, oppression, exploitation, corruption and for whose benefit. The system also decides whether there will be a class or classless society and the nature of such classes. The issues of justice, freedom and wars within and between countries, socio-economic and comprehensive human rights, democracy, unemployment, oppression, exploitation, corruption and racism are some of the major problems that cannot be fully resolved in any country that remains under capitalism.
Since the ascendancy of capitalism about six centuries ago, the socio-economic conditions of the overwhelming majority of the people of the world have remained unbearably brutal, cruel, poor and de-humanizing. The capitalist system has proved to be highly monstrous and disastrous. The record of the performance of world capitalism as a ruling ideology is indescribably oppressive, exploitative, racist, crisis-ridden, horrifying and sickening to the overwhelming majority of the world’s people. Capitalism encourages and sustains the principle of the survival of the fittest. As a result, the world is chaotic and in a mess. The situation will not change as long as capitalism remains as the ruling ideology in the world. This is in line with its objectives, guiding principles and strategies for the fast and ruthless accumulation of private profit for the parasitic ruling class minorities.
The intrinsic nature, principles, objectives and strategies of capitalism as a system of socio-economic governance include imperialism, neo-colonialism, the massive and continuous destruction of the ecological environment, oppression, exploitation, Zionism, racism, gender inequality, decadence, divide and rule tactics, militarism, extreme riches and wasteful luxury for the minority and poverty and suffering for the majority. The capitalist ruling class manages the economy and the state in a way that facilitates corruption and systematic over looting by its members, agents and supporters. This causes cyclical crises, recessions and depressions. When this happens, the capitalist system through its government, usually bails out the collapsing institutions on behalf of the rich and does not equally bother to try to bail out the socio-economic conditions of the poor. Austerity measures are also usually put in place and the poor majority is made to pay for the consequences of the corruption and mismanagement of society by the rich and their managers, agents and supporters. This is daylight robbery by the parasitic and shameless capitalist ruling class against the poor majority. The future of the overwhelming majority, which is made to live at the bottom of the capitalist class society, will remain doomed as long as capitalism remains the ruling ideology.
The international relations system is iniquitous and undemocratic because it is based on capitalistic principles. It is there to serve the interests of the imperialist powers. It also includes all international institutions, treaties and the trade regime, and these are all capitalist, imperialist and neo-colonialist in their design and operations. Some of the international institutions in question are the United Nations Organization, International Monetary Fund, World Bank, World Trade Organization and the International Criminal Court. They were all created by imperialism mainly for its own benefit. By the very nature of the system of capitalism, it is certainly not possible for a capitalist country to be truly democratic. This is also, why it should not be surprising that the capitalist countries that call themselves the champions of democracy like USA, Canada, Australia and the European Union strongly oppose the democratization of the highly undemocratic and exploitative international relations system.
Many people think that capitalism is so well-entrenched that it can never come to an end and that socialism/ecosocialism can never succeed. But as history teaches, this is not correct thinking. Every time a powerful world force or system emerged to try and rule the world like the Greek, Roman, British, French, Spanish and Portuguese empires did, many people always thought that the empires would never come to an end. At the height of such systems and policies like slavery, direct colonialism and crude racism many people also thought that was going to be the permanent world order. It was even easier for most people to imagine the end of the world than the demise of these empires, systems and policies. But all such empires and systems always got defeated or somehow came to an end at some stage. Even a highly powerful world ruling system like feudalism came, flourished but was eventually and largely replaced by another system, which is capitalism. This will also certainly happen to capitalism. As a socio-economic system, capitalism and imperialism cannot be the end of the development of human history. There has to be life after capitalism and it has to be ecosocialist.
Any fundamental change to the capitalist and imperialist system cannot be achieved through reforms or by the revolutionary forces being nice or persuasive or co-operative when dealing with such an enemy. The capitalist system will always put up a determined and often violent resistance against any efforts to make fundamental changes to its intrinsic nature, features, principles and objectives. Capitalism is essential to the existence and sustenance of the ruling class minority and for the creation and maintenance of its privileges at the expense of the poor majority. As a result, capitalists are always determined to promote, protect and defend their system at all costs.
However, capitalists and advocates of capitalism believe their propaganda line that says capitalism; especially through its free-market forces, international trade, business, globalization and investments, is responsible for providing jobs, health care and the general welfare for millions and millions of people in the world. They argue that capitalism is also responsible for the massive scientific and technological development in the world, and that the rich are also always voluntarily donating to charity, which benefits the poor. They further argue that in socialist society the rich are over taxed and the sharing of resources is by force and there is no “free choice”. All this is capitalist propaganda and that is why capitalists and their supporters will not normally wish to seriously answer the following questions:-
1. Why has advanced industrialized capitalist countries like USA and western Europe failed to eradicate poverty of the majority in their own countries for so many centuries?
2. Why is there high unemployment and underemployment in the so-called rich countries?
3. Did the ruling class minority in such countries not get rich partly by exploiting their own working classes and partly through slave trade and the colonization of Africa, Asia and Latin America and pillaging the raw materials of the colonies?
4. Did the imperialist countries not replace colonialism with neo-colonialism so that they can continue owning and exploiting the natural resources of the former colonies?
5. Are the imperialist countries not controlling the international trade regime for their own benefit and at the expense of the former colonies?
6. Are the ruling classes in imperialist countries not oppressing and exploiting, for their own financial benefit, the working classes, women and national minorities in their own countries?
8. Is it not true that the task of eradicating poverty in any country is best carried out mainly by the state rather than left entirely to charity? Does this not explain why there has always been an outrageously wide gap between the wealth and incomes of the rich minority and those of the poor majority?
9. Is it not a matter of exception for one to be able to become rich without taking some risks that require one to break the law, commit fraud, be dishonest, abuse or bribe state officials?
10. Is it not a matter of exception for one to be able to maintain or manage or increase one’s riches without unfairly taking advantage of the situation. This means one is more likely to follow a dishonest, cruel and corrupt way of life, and underpaying and exploiting the workers who are already impoverished.
12. Is it not true that the rich ruling class minority finances politicians and political parties that seek to stand for public office? Does that not make the politicians and political parties running such a capitalist state become mere instruments and agents of the ruling class, who when they come to power, have to put in place laws, policies, contracts in favour of their financiers?
Many capitalists and their supporters call themselves Christians and yet they are amazing hypocrites. At the same time they are conscious practitioners or supporters of imperialism, neo-colonialism, racism, and of oppression and exploitation of the poor, the needy and the powerless in society. These capitalists and their supporters are not part of the solution, but part of the world problem that requires a ruthless and devastating global solution. What they stand for and practice in life is diametrically opposed to the teachings of the Holy Bible to which they hypocritically and unashamedly claim to subscribe. Christian capitalists never wish to quote or refer to these anti-capitalist Bible teachings or verses. Some of the Bible teachings that are in total contradiction with their way of life are as follows:-
Galatians 3:28, There is neither Jew nor Greek, there is neither slave nor free, there is no male or female, for you are all one in Christ Jesus. (ESV)
Ecclesiastes 4.1, Then I looked again at all the acts of oppression which were being done under the sun: And behold I saw the tears of the oppressed and that they had no one to comfort them; and on the side of their oppressors was power ….. (NASB)
Jeremiah 22:17, But you have eyes and heart only for your dishonest gain, for shedding innocent blood, and for practicing oppression and violence. (NIV)
Luke 4:18, The Spirit of the Lord is upon me, because he has anointed me to proclaim good news to the poor. He has sent me to proclaim liberty to the captives and…to set at liberty those who are oppressed, .…. (ESV)
James 2:5-6, Listen, my brothers and sisters. God chose the poor people in the world to be rich in faith. He chose them to receive the kingdom God promised to those who love him. But you show no respect to those who are poor. And you know that the rich are the ones who always try to control your lives. (ERV)
Proverbs 14:31, Whoever oppresses a poor man insults his Maker, but he who is generous to the needy honors him. (ESV)
Psalm 9:9, The Lord is a stronghold for the oppressed, a stronghold in times of trouble. (ESV)
Zechariah 7:10, Do not oppress the widow or the fatherless, the aliens or the poor. In your hearts do not think evil of each other. (NIV)
Proverbs 22:22-23, Do not exploit the poor because they are poor and do not crush the needy…… for the Lord will take up their case and will plunder those who plunder them. (NIV)
Deuteronomy 24:17-18, You must make sure that foreigners and orphans are treated fairly. And you must never take clothes from a widow as security. Remember, you were poor slaves in Egypt and the Lord your God took you from that place and set you free. That is why I tell you to do these things for the poor. (ERV)
Matthew 19:23-24, And Jesus said to his disciples, truly, I say to you, only with, difficulty will a rich person enter kingdom of heaven, again I tell you, it is easier for a camel to go through the eye of a needle than for a rich person to enter the Kingdom of God. (ESV)
1 Timothy 6:9-10, .…. those who desire to be rich fall into temptation, into a snare, into many senseless and harmful desires that plunge people into ruin and destruction. For the love of money is a root of all kinds of evils…..
Matthew 6:24, No one can serve two masters…. You cannot serve both God and money. (NIV)
Proverbs 29:7, The righteous care about justice for the poor, but the wicked have no such concern. (NIV)
Proverbs 28:5, Evil men do not understand justice, but those who seek the Lord understand it fully. (NIV)
Isaiah 1:17, Learn to do good; seek justice, correct oppression; bring justice…. (ESV)
Psalm 82:3-4, Defend the poor and orphans. Protect the rights of the poor. Help those who are poor and helpless. Save them from those who are evil. (ERV)
It is clear that the meaning and spirit of these bible verses are not in support of the capitalist system. This is because it is understood through these verses that in most cases one cannot amass massive wealth and safely manage it without using dishonest, corrupt, oppressive, exploitative and unfair means. One cannot be a genuine Christian if one does not agree with or doubts the validity of these verses. It must be noted that the point is not about whether or not one should make money or gain profits, but how one makes, manages and uses such profits.
Capitalism is not the first system to govern the world. Feudalism was the ruling system for many centuries before the advent of capitalism. The ideas and the struggle for capitalism emerged during the feudal era. The capitalist ideology was in opposition to feudalism and the two systems were in a state of conflict. Eventually, through both peaceful and unpeaceful methods of struggle, capitalism won. Today, the Euro-American controlled world capitalism is in power and the ideas and forces of global revolutionary ecosocialism are in opposition. No human era or a socio-economic system can last forever.
The destruction of world capitalism is long overdue. It is now in the terminal phase of its life. Capitalism, in all its variations, cannot be the end of the development of the history of human society. Human progress as a continuous liberation struggle will and should always go on endlessly. No human force can permanently stop such a historical process as long as human society remains in existence. The fate of capitalism is similar to that of feudalism which capitalism replaced. Ecosocialism will win against capitalism just as capitalism won against feudalism. This is irrespective of how long it may take, how difficult it may seem to be and how many battle-defeats the revolutionary ecosocialist forces may suffer. As socio-economic systems: feudalism, capitalism and ecosocialism are all transitional. However, unlike feudalism and capitalism which resist the struggle to replace them, scientific socialism/ecosocialism is and should be so designed as to intentionally facilitate the advent of its own replacement by world communism.
3.Neo-colonialism as Plan B of Imperialism
In the 20th century, especially in its second half, the combined impact and pressure of the “Third World” nationalist liberation struggle and that of the international socialist movement increased to such a high level that the imperialists became totally unsettled and demoralized. As a result, the imperialists began to realize more and more that direct colonialism and crude racism were unlikely to last, and at least not in their current forms then. This was in spite of their superior military might and their preparedness to continue fighting against all forces of national liberation. As usual, the imperialists worked out a counter-plan, which herein shall be referred to as Plan B. Its aim was to turn their pending defeat into their own victory. This meant that most of the economic, political, cultural and intellectual leaders of most of the colonies and the black communities in the Diaspora would be co-opted into the world capitalist system as junior partners and/or quislings.
The idea was that in the former colonies, such leadership would become the black capitalistic ruling “elites” under the tutelage of imperialism. This meant direct colonialism would become indirect colonialism or neo-colonialism. Crude racism would be replaced by subtle racism. In the black communities in the Diaspora, most of the black leaders who would be co-opted by the capitalist system would be expected to kill or at least distort the black struggle and transform it into a struggle for capitalist crumps. It also meant world capitalism would no longer be able to remain just as a system for and by white capitalists alone. Western racist capitalism would include some members of the leadership of the former colonies. Plan B was seen, under the circumstances, as the best way to protect the durability, the invincibility and the interests of world capitalism and imperialism.
The co-option strategy was not very difficult to implement because black people, like any other human beings, can also be either oppressors and exploiters or liberationist revolutionaries. It is often a matter of personal conscience, orientation, choice and opportunity whether a human being becomes an oppressor and exploiter or a liberationist, or just a passive or unconscious supporter of one of the two sides.
The successful implementation of Plan B, meant that black-on-black oppression and exploitation in alliance with the foreign capitalists started flourishing in most black-ruled countries. The capitalist class system of rich ruling minorities and the ruled poor majorities started being introduced and consolidated in most of the former colonies. The need for class struggle against the black capitalistic ruling “elites” and their foreign capitalist partner-masters became more and more logical and obvious. The black people in the Diaspora are also being divided into rich black minorities and poor black majorities. In western countries, most of the more well-to-do black people are now part of the national middle class that is white dominated. But this does not make them escape from subtle racism. The capitalist system divides people into antagonistic classes, races, sexes, ethnic groups and other categories as part of the strategy of “divide, rule, oppress and exploit”.
The nature of the relationship or the alliance between the two sides, the co-opters (the international capitalists) and the co-opted (the new post-independence and post-civil rights black capitalistic leaders), is like that between a rider and a horse. Racism is an essential part of world capitalism. This is why the black capitalistic leaders have a love and hate relationship with international capitalists. Therefore their conflicts, which erupt from time to time, are a matter of internal feuding which is normal in any human system. The two sides need each other since they belong to the same capitalist system or camp. In the process and in return, the traitorous, collaborationist and corrupt capitalistic leaders usually get western funding and protection to remain in power, and they also outrageously reward themselves from the loot and the filthy arrangement of jointly oppressing and exploiting their own people with their foreign capitalist partner-masters.
Plan B also included ideas and action plans against international socialist struggles and consolidation as follows:-
A) Infiltration of socialist parties, organizations, groups and other liberation forces for the purpose of causing divisions and splits.
B) Distorting socialist ideas and philosophies through well-funded research, information and propaganda work.
C) Working out and implementing counter-revolutionary strategies and tactics.
D) Sponsoring coups d’état, uprisings and even full-scale military wars were they think it is necessary in order to achieve imperialist and capitalist objectives.
As hypocrites, capitalists and imperialists always insist that in order to economically move forward, Afrika and the rest of the developing world should first realize the concepts of democracy, human rights, rule of law and good governance, which is not what they themselves did to achieve their present level of socio-economic advancement. While it must be stated that these concepts are very important for every country, the matter is not so simple. These concepts must be qualified or defined not according to the wishes and interests of the capitalist and imperialist system. It should not be democracy for the ruling class and dictatorship for the majority.
Human rights must fully include economic rights and the empowerment of the majority and all minorities. The rule of law must not be selective and discriminatory against the majority or any section of the population. Good governance must not be in name and propaganda only as is the case with the so-called developed countries. The concepts of democracy, human rights, rule of law and good governance are worth fighting for if they can fully include the qualifications that have been stated above. These qualifications are of course unacceptable to or ignored by the capitalists.
It is crucially important for the people not to be confused on the relationship between these concepts and national development and the eradication of poverty as capitalists and imperialists want the people of the developing countries to be. These concepts do not cause national development and they not eradicate poverty on their own. The realization of such concepts can only be supportive of development and the eradication of poverty if they include the stated qualifications. The capitalist definition of human rights always excludes economic rights because the capitalists do not like the state to be responsible for the eradication of poverty. They wish poverty to be left entirely to charity. This would mean poverty would never be eradicated because that would require state power to nationally mobilize and manage the resources and the programme itself.
The capitalists are completely opposed to the idea of sharing the national cake with the poor majority and yet that is the source of “their” wealth. Capitalists want a small government with a small expenditure. They want the private sector to be given unlimited freedom, which can only happen at the expense of the state and the poor majority in any country. They strongly advocate a state that is not interventionist and yet that is what they themselves used to develop their own countries. Western countries economically developed partly by brutally oppressing and exploiting the working classes of their own countries and partly by benefiting from slavery, colonialism, racism and the pillaging of the resources of the colonies. In order to maintain and increase their development and the pleasure of the capitalist ruling classes, they still continue with racism and pillaging the resources of most of the former colonies and other developing countries. They also manipulate and control the international trade regime for their own benefit. All this happens with the connivance of or half-hearted resistance of the capitalistic leadership of most developing countries. Only in few countries is there real struggle against imperialism and neo-colonialism at government level.
The capitalists and imperialists also use such concepts as strategy to divert the attention of the “Third World’’ from anti-imperialist and anti-neo-colonialist issues. As a result of the extensive imperialist control, manipulation and corruption, most of the former colonies remain divided and as mere exporters of raw materials that fetch low prices because of the absence of local value addition and beneficiation at the source. This also exports jobs to the countries where the raw materials are exported because that is where the processing of the raw materials takes place. It was like this during the colonial period and it remains more or less the same today. It is unacceptable that 75% of Afrika’s exports are in raw materials and 14% are in manufactured goods. It is equally disturbing that inter-afrikan trade is only at 10-12% because of the obstacles imposed by the “donor” countries or the former colonial powers. They ensure that it is “cheaper” for Afrikan states to trade with them than among themselves. The big capitalist countries of course usually dictate the terms of trade including the prices of both the raw materials and the manufactured goods. The imperialists derive full delight from all this.
How the natural resources of Afrika benefit the western countries, especially the ruling classes in the capitalist nations of Europe and North America more than Afrika itself was most clearly explained by President Kwame Nkrumah in his book entitled: Challenge of the Congo. (1967) This is also well-documented through the research carried out or caused or supported by the UN, the African Union, United Nations Economic Commission for Africa, African Development Bank, Christian Aid, Oxfam, Global Financial Integrity, War On Want, Trade Justice Movement, Share The World Resources and others.
The problem is that Afrikan natural resources are owned by western multi-national corporations and not by Afrikans themselves. The foreign companies and investors are involved in profit–shifting, trade-mispricing and in making falsified invoices with their parent companies and others. They hide their true revenues so as to avoid taxes in the countries of their operations. They bribe as many Afrikans with senior positions as possible, which make them to co-operate with the imperialists and to get rich quickly at the expense of their own people and countries.
This explains why Afrika has to depend on humanitarian assistance for food and the African Union itself has 75% of its budget funded by the same foreign countries when Afrika has so many natural resources. The same reason explains why the overwhelming majority of the people of the richest continent in the world remain as the poorest people on earth. If Afrika does not fully unite and wage the Second Liberation Struggle, how else can it get out of this system of neo-colonialism and the poverty of the majority of its people? Can this be done through more co-operation with the imperialists and neo-colonialists or by appealing to their good senses and consciences? By the very nature of their vision and mission; oppressors, exploiters and thieves cannot use any good senses and consciences. So the answer is definitely, NO! The revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and socialist/ecosocialist unity and struggle, which must be fought at all levels and by all interested forces, is the only way which can reverse such imperialist exploitation.
All governments of industrially developed capitalist countries always insist that developing countries must prioritise and achieve full democracy, human political rights, rule of law and good governance in their countries and yet the majority of the people in such capitalist countries are still struggling for the realization of the same concepts. It is sheer political propaganda lies and misleading for capitalist countries to say that they are the champions of democracy, human rights, rule of law and good governance in the world. What has the enslaving and colonizing of other peoples, the practice of racism, neo-colonialism and imperialism to do with democracy, human rights, rule of law and good governance? Why is it that the slaves and colonial peoples had to fight for their freedom? Why was their struggle being continuously suppressed by the so-called champions of liberty in the world? Capitalism by its very nature cannot achieve genuine people’s democracy or eliminate poverty of the overwhelming majority of the population.
These concepts, without the qualifications, are for capitalist manipulation and propaganda purposes, and are mainly useful to the capitalists and imperialists. Such concepts, as defined by capitalists for their own purposes, cannot be of much use to the majority under capitalism because of its intrinsic nature. Former colonies can only achieve genuine and sustainable development that can eradicate poverty and empower the overwhelming majority of the people by not following capitalism, but by first destroying this monstrous system.
4. World Socialism as Global Revolututionary Ecosocialism
Since capitalism is a world system, it means that only another world system can truly, seriously, practically and effectively replace it. Such a replacement can only be in the form of global revolutionary ecosocialism. This is because ecosocialism is a more liberationist, sustainable, genuinely democratic and fairer system than capitalism.
The term “ecosocialism” is has been widely accepted all over the world because it means socialism that more than implies its commitment to the reversal of the degradation of the ecological environment. Most countries which called themselves Marxist or socialist abused the environment and most leading socialist writers did not give the environmental issue its due importance, unlike what Karl Marx and Frederick Engels did. Many of them tended to view the environmental issue as a mere middle class pastime. As a result, ecosocialism is socialism which explicitly, consistently and continuously emphasizes the environmental issue as one of its major focuses both in theory and practice, and both in the struggle before and after the destruction of capitalism. This means the reds must also be fully green. This is also why ecosocialism is believed to be the only term at this point in history that gives a more appropriate and fuller picture of what the revolution is all about in the 21st century than any other word.
Ecosocialists recognize the fact that the world is in a state of ecocatastrophe. The use, which in fact has become the mindless abuse and destruction of the environment by the capitalist system is so massive and continuous that it has reached catastrophic proportions. This is exclusively and blindly driven by the insatiable and uncontrollable love for private profit by the capitalist ruling class irrespective of the consequences. It is the destruction of the environment by capitalism which has led to global warming among other ecological disasters. The climate situation is continuously, speedily and dangerously getting worse. This is why if the environmental destruction by capitalism is not urgently and drastically reversed, it will certainly lead, sooner or later, to the total extinction of human, animal and plant life on this planet. Such a complete reversal can only effectively and definitively happen by destroying capitalism as the cause of the problem in the first place.
The results of the environmental abuse and destruction by the capitalist system include the following:- desertification; disappearance of wetlands; global deforestation; severe droughts; extreme weather conditions; floods; cyclones; storms; falling water tables; acute shortages of water; water and air pollution; rivers running dry; eroding soils; poor yields; crop failures; rising seas; loss of coastal land; sinking of islands; depletion of fisheries; poisoned seafood; famine; extreme poverty; malnutrition; heat waves; wildfires; epidemic diseases; climate change refugees; disappearance of animal and plant species; proliferation and careless dumping of toxic wastes; rising carbon dioxide levels; acid rain; possibilities of wide-spread riots all over the world; and, wars leading to the irrational, dangerous and destructive use of science and technology. The abuse of the environment by capitalism does not recognize the concept of sustainability and is only driven by the principle of profitability for private use.
The capitalist abuse and destruction of the environment knows no limits and yet the world’s resources are not unlimited. By its very nature, capitalism has to ensure that unlimited private profits are made and ideally with no restrictions from the state. In order to achieve such huge profits, there has to be continuous and unlimited growth and that leads to massive wastefulness and the destruction of the environment with disastrous consequences. Since the capitalist state is controlled by big business and is there to primarily promote the interests of the capitalists, it cannot give enough or meaningful protection to the environment.
This means that if the ecosocialist revolution does not succeed soon enough, capitalism will eventually be destroyed by capitalists themselves who will in the process also destroy this planet. Revolutionaries, therefore, cannot afford to wait for capitalism to destroy itself because it will not go alone, but together with the whole world. Capitalism is a system with fatal flaws and irreversible suicidal tendencies. Therefore, it must actually be fought and defeated by revolutionary forces so that life and the world can continue after capitalism.
Human beings have a dual nature. They have two contradictory instincts. One is selfishness (individualism/elitism/egoism) and the other is selflessness (altruism). These two instincts exist in every human being and they continuously fight each other. Capitalism encourages and protects selfishness, and ecosocialism discourages selfishness and encourages selflessness. Selfishness promotes the capitalist principle of the survival of the fittest which is barbaric and leads to oppression and exploitation. The dominant instinct should always be the selflessness part (ecosocialism) for the benefit of the majority in society.
Ecosocialism by its very nature is the only system that has the mass-line orientation, the will and the capacity to put in place and to manage a planned, systematic and irreversible movement for the speedy reduction and eventual elimination of mass poverty, squalor, endemic diseases, homelessness, unemployment, illiteracy, rural neglect and environmental degradation. Ecosocialism is genuinely and uncompromisingly committed to the elimination of racism, injustice, gender inequality, classes, oppression, exploitation and corruption. It will put in place adequate and genuine checks and balances. The ecosocialist system will ensure that basic and comprehensive rights system is established. In an advanced ecosocialist state, class struggle, workers’ control, workers’ management, workers’ leadership of the country and workers’ democracy will become and remain as some of the supreme and inviolable principles up to the end of the ecosocialist era.
Unlike world capitalism, global revolutionary ecosocialism will be able to speedily re-structure and democratize the current iniquitous and totally undemocratic system of international relations. The aim should be to fully and speedily achieve a fair and democratic ownership and redistribution of wealth and power both at the national and the international levels.
5. Previous Attempts to Implement Socialism
Revolutionaries usually take the failure or defeat of the previous attempts to build socialism as their stepping stone to success. That failure or defeat has the effect of helping them to re-equip, re-focus, re-sharpen, re-deepen and re-intensify their struggle in terms of theory and practice. This includes the move to ecosocialism which re-emphasizes the environmental issue. Revolutionaries view the failure or defeat of revolutionary struggles as temporary setbacks or defeats in the battles of a long-drawn war between the worldwide forces for capitalism and those for ecosocialism. In any protracted war, it is normal for any side to suffer many setbacks and defeats in battles. It is important to note that to suffer many battle-defeats in a long war does not automatically mean the side or army facing such defeats will automatically lose the war. Retreating in a war can also be for strategic or tactical reasons and does not mean the retreating side can never re-group, re-strategize and eventually win the war. In many cases, the failure to build socialism was also a result of the betrayal and distortion of socialist theory and practice by some leaders of the revolution in those countries. Forward looking revolutionaries take such failures or battle-defeats as useful experience and a source for knowledge and inspiration.
The validity and relevance of the socialist ideology should not be judged on or confused with the behavior or practice or weaknesses of any particular leader or organization or government which may have claimed to be socialist at any time in history. The fact that previous attempts to build socialism in some countries were distorted and betrayed does not mean the world should therefore stick to capitalism which is there to support the rich minorities at the expense of the poor majorities. It is an illogical and not genuine argument to use the performance of a state capitalist system as proof that socialism is a failed project. The struggle for ecosocialism in a country can fail for many reasons. Some struggles can fail, but not the idea of ecosocialism itself. Sometimes the failure of a struggle may not even be the fault of the revolutionaries in the country concerned, and that still does not prove that ecosocialism itself is a failure or is not practical. One should therefore not talk about the failure of ecosocialism as an idea or system but the failure of the struggle for ecosocialism under a certain type of leadership and under certain circumstances, some of which may be external.
The principle of consistent and continuous class struggle should not just be used in the struggle to destroy capitalism. It should also be strictly applied from the beginning to the end of the ecosocialist era. Class struggle remains the ultimate and most effective ecosocialist weapon for the elimination of the oppression and exploitation of one person by another and many other major problems that are caused by capitalism. Continuous class struggle is essential to the success of every ecosocialist revolution in any country and at the international level. Otherwise, without such a consistent and continuous class struggle, the defeated ruling class and its local supporters will get a chance to re-group, build alliances locally and to unite with foreign capitalist forces in order to be better able to stage a comeback to power.
Failure to fully apply the principle of class struggle plus other deviations from the correct revolutionary theories and plus the machinations of the counter-revolutionary forces will all lead to the emergence, development and consolidation of state capitalism in an ecosocialist state. Once state capitalism has consolidated itself, the full restoration of capitalism in such countries becomes inevitable and this degeneration also surreptitiously destroys the internal resistance to the process of full restoration of capitalism. Under state capitalism, the destruction of the environment is more or less the same as in outright capitalist society.
The war between capitalism and ecosocialist forces will continue because the reasons and factors that caused such a war in the first place still exist. The previous struggles and attempts to build socialism have all been competently, correctly and fully analyzed. The conclusion is that this was a highly useful experience and can only benefit the future of the revolutionary struggle in terms of theory and practice. Such an experience can only mean that the theory and practice of ecosocialist forces will have a more rock-solid base and their future victories will be more difficult to reverse or distort as was the case previously.
It is also highly encouraging that the crisis in the enemy camp in this 21st century is getting worse and worse, and the morale of the revolutionary forces is getting higher and higher. It must be noted that extensive re-grouping, re-planning and the resurgence of revolutionary forces are currently taking place all over the world. Ecosocialist and other progressive forces are actively re-strategizing for major revolutionary initiatives. The ecosocialist movement is also currently in a state of speedy, vigorous and unstoppable resuscitation all over the world which is highly inspiring to the whole worldwide movement of revolutionary movements. This is the reason why revolutionaries all over the world remain quite clear and optimistic about the inevitability of the victory of the world revolution. They believe that no matter how many serious battle-defeats the revolutionary process may experience and how long it may take, revolutionary forces will eventually win the war.
6. Some Guiding Principles of the Struggle
On the issue of eras, stages and phases of liberation, it is important to note that every new era has its own problems, which will always need to be addressed through a new stage or phase of the struggle. Some of the problems are the unfinished business of the previous stage of the struggle, and others are new. By the end of every era, some of the objectives of the previous struggle may have been fully achieved, others may only have been partially achieved and there may also be others which may not have been realized at all. The liberation process moves in endless stages or phases, or rather it must be an endless series of victories against oppression and exploitation of one country or one race or one ethnic group or one region or one class or one sex or one person by another in the world.
Apart from this, when a problem is solved another one usually emerges. It also means there are always some old and new problems and issues in every era, which can only be addressed through a new and higher phase of the people’s struggle appropriate to that particular era or situation. Every liberation victory like the abolition of slavery, the achievement of independence, and the gaining of some civil rights or some concessions to the workers or the defeat of capitalism in one country should always be taken as a step forward only, rather than as the final victory. This means after the victory against capitalism, imperialism and neo-colonialism, then the situation will become ready for the next stage or level of the revolutionary process since any system created by human beings who are not perfect cannot be perfect, and there is always a danger of deterioration or degeneration or going backwards. This is why the principle of permanent revolution based on class struggle is the answer. This also does not mean there will be no tactical alliances, stages, periods and strategies for consolidating the revolutionary gains from time to time. It would be adventurist and self-defeating not to have such a flexible approach in the struggle.
It must always be highlighted that the liberationist aspirations of the overwhelming majority cannot be fully achieved and consolidated in any country in the world without first destroying capitalism. This is because of the intrinsic nature, principles and objectives of capitalism. Apart from this, and as long as world capitalism has not been totally destroyed and completely replaced by global revolutionary ecosocialism, the liberation process of any country or a group of countries or race or class or sex anywhere in the world will always remain insecure and unsustainable. This means if world capitalism remains the ruling ideology in some countries, the countries in which the capitalists have been defeated will continuously face the danger of having their ecosocialist liberation process being reversed or at least seriously distorted at some stage by a combination of internal and external capitalist and imperialist forces. The revolutionary struggles, therefore, must be treated and waged at national, regional, continental and global levels as permanent processes. At their advanced stages and if they are going to succeed, these struggles must all be based on class struggle as the main weapon of the struggle against oppression and exploitation.
The struggle against world capitalism cannot be successfully carried out and sustained by one country or a group of countries or one race or one sex or one organization or one movement alone. The liberation process of any people is inseparably linked to all other human struggles internationally because the enemy system is one and the same, which must also be defeated globally. It is important to note that the true and lasting liberation process of any people or country can only be sustainable in the context of the global ecosocialist revolution. There ought to be maximum co-ordination of all forces against capitalism, imperialism, racism and for ecosocialism. Such a route has to be followed if this struggle is to remain truly revolutionary, genuine, meaningful, realistic, practical and effectual. Capitalism has to be fought and defeated in every country in the world as well as at the international level. This can be done simultaneously or at different times or paces. Capitalism and imperialism must go, and revolutionaries must take it as a total global war!
The duty and responsibility of every new generation of revolutionaries is to make its contribution by advancing the revolutionary process to higher levels both in theory and in practice. The new generation of liberationists has to update the ideological ideas, theories and analyses by the previous generation of the leaders of the struggle taking into account the new experiences, circumstances and conditions in society. Every new generation has to work out the road map of the present and future struggles. The ideas, theories and analyses of the previous leaders can be updated, enhanced or corrected without being rude or crude or dismissive or denouncing them as if they were traitors or people who did not achieve anything. New revolutionaries have to carry out their work with respect and not making personal attacks or carrying out mere faultfinding exercises against how the old generation of freedom fighters thought and organized the struggle.
Their pretext is that the theories of the revolution must be kept “pure”. But if one just spends so much time attacking or down-grading the leaders and heroes of the previous era and does not concentrate on how the struggle must now proceed, one would be doing a disservice to the struggle. There is also another type of revolutionaries that specializes on making personal attacks against other revolutionaries and not the enemy. They believe that no one else can ever be as correct on revolutionary issues as themselves. They cannot easily work in a team. All this leads to more and more factions in the movement and no revolutionary action against the enemy. Of course the imperialists like the idea of the new generation of liberationists spending more or all their time attacking each other and their predecessors. The imperialists are even too happy to fund such research projects and any acrimonious debates at conferences. What they hate is for the new revolutionaries to unite, and to spend most of their time planning and actually carrying out the struggle.
At the same time, there are also some conservative revolutionaries who are so rigid and fanatical that they always resist the updating of old revolutionary theories and strategies even if this is done correctly and in good faith. They resist the introduction of any new concepts or even phrases and language styles in the current liberation struggles merely just because they were not used by the heroes of the revolutionary struggles of the previous era. It is the duty of the local revolutionaries in every country to decide how to proceed with their own struggle in terms of their programme of action, strategies and tactics that are required, and which they have to work out themselves. They also have to decide who their short-term, medium-term and long-term allies will be on their own and in their own countries. It is the internationalist duty of non-local revolutionaries to give maximum solidarity to foreign revolutionary struggles, but they have no right to interfere or dictate or lead foreign struggles.
The anti-imperialist, anti-racist and any other forces that have serious contradictions with imperialism or are fighting against any major aspect(s) of the enemy system should be encouraged and supported by all revolutionaries. These are important levels of the struggle against the main enemy. The fact that some of the forces fighting against any major aspect(s) of the imperialist and capitalist system may not necessarily be ecosocialist, should not stop revolutionaries from giving critical support to the struggles of such forces. There is also no justification for any true revolutionary to join the imperialists and capitalists in denouncing or demonizing the forces that are classified as the enemies of the imperialists. The enemy should be overwhelmed by attacks from all directions, from many types of fronts and at all levels including by grassroots forces, and anti-imperialist movements and governments.
Revolutionary forces in all countries, usually and from time to time, have to always try to unite with all those who can be united with against the main enemy on certain issues. This can be unity on selected issues or programmes, rather than for different forces becoming one organization. Under such unity they should always continue to try to divide, isolate, neutralize or confuse the enemies of the revolution and then destroy them one by one. Revolutionaries need to be able to distinguish primary from secondary contradictions and minor from major enemies.
Revolutionaries have to always remember that the struggle is protracted and victory will not be achieved by the same methods of struggle and at the same time everywhere. The struggle between feudalism and capitalism took many centuries before capitalism won and the same applies to the conflict between capitalism and ecosocialism in which the latter is bound to win. Revolutionaries also need to continuously and effectively apply and stick to the revolutionary motto: “Workers of all countries and all oppressed peoples unite!” This slogan was adopted by the Communist International in the early part of the 20th century and is still valid in this 21st century.
7. From Pan-Afrikanism to Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism
Some people think that Pan- Afrikanism is dead or was just a cause and a guide for black people all over the world during the pre-colonial and pre-civil rights era. Such people are mistaken or simply hostile to the worldwide black liberation journey, which in fact has a great future. In order to genuinely understand and appreciate the nature, past, present and future of Pan Afrikanism, one must find out the answers to the following ten questions:
1. What caused Pan-Afrikanism to come into existence and does that still exist?
If one genuinely and seriously delves into these questions, one will come to the conclusion that revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and ecosocialism are essential in the continuation of the liberation process of Afrika and the Black World in this post-colonial and post-civil rights era. The point is that black people will not go far in their liberation, socio-economic empowerment and development without unity based on revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist principles and without being an integral part of the worldwide struggle for the total destruction of world capitalism and its complete replacement by global revolutionary ecosocialism. It is also clear that without this, black people will forever remain as the underdog of the human race and their voice on the international stage will not be a force to reckon with. The resources of their countries will continue to be plundered by the imperialists in alliance with the local capitalistic and quisling leadership in most of the former colonies.
Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and ecosocialism serves as the ideological basis and guide, energizer, co-ordinator, and the uniting and driving force for the Second Liberation Struggle. It will continue with the process of giving back to more and more black people all over the world their identity, self-respect, dignity, motivation, self-confidence, pride, hope, inspiration and leading to revolutionary consciousness. This has to be done as a continuous process. The successful implementation of this task will also be one of the most essential factors in the achievement of the objectives of the Second Liberation Struggle.
The difference between mere Pan-Afrikanism and revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism is mainly in their objectives, levels of struggle, how they deal with the nature of the ever-changing strategies and tactics of the enemy system, and the eras concerned. While there is a wide difference between mere Pan-Afrikanism and revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism, these should be taken as two different schools of thought both necessary and unavoidable for two different levels or stages of the same international black liberation process. The Second Liberation Struggle benefits from and builds on the experience of the First Liberation Struggle. The First Liberation Struggle itself was a product of black nationalist and Pan-Afrikanist ideas and experiences. The Second Liberation Struggle is a product of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and socialist/ecosocialist ideas and experiences.
It is always important to make a distinction between Pan-Afrikanists who consciously or unconsciously support capitalism and the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists who oppose capitalism and are for its replacement by ecosocialism. This means the Pan-Afrikanists who support capitalism are opposed to the Second Liberation Struggle. Their struggle is about how to make money personally as quickly as possible and by any means possible especially through corruption and the abuse and manipulation of the state machinery, which is easier and quicker than any other methods. They are part of the black capitalistic ruling “elites” whose fate and together with that of their capitalist system can only be determined by class struggle.
The aims and objectives of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism in this post-colonial and post-civil rights era must remain relevant and effective in promoting the liberationist aspirations, interests and needs of the overwhelming majority of black people worldwide. In order to successfully remain focused on this, its aims and objectives need to be re-stated as follows:-
1. to expose, fight and wipe out colonial and slave mentality (colonized and enslaved mind-set), and imperialist cultural domination among black people worldwide, especially among the “educated” where one finds the worst victims and ideologically most dangerous, conscious and direct instruments of imperialism;
2. to continuously expose and fight against international anti-black racism, neo-colonialism, imperialism, capitalism and the destruction of the environment, and all this should be carried out under the banner of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and global revolutionary ecosocialism;
3. to speed-up the struggle for economic independence in the former colonies and the democratization of the socio-economic system with the aim of empowering and transforming the socio-economic conditions of life for the overwhelming majority of the black people worldwide;
4. to uncompromisingly promote national and democratic ownership of the natural resources so as not to remain exploited by neo-colonialism and imperialism as mere exporters of raw materials, and without full value addition and beneficiation at the source;
5. to eliminate corruption, black-on-black oppression and exploitation, gender inequality, and ethnic or regional chauvinism and conflicts through class struggle;
6. to speed-up the eradication of poverty and suffering in society through the immediate granting to the populace of all the basic and comprehensive socio-economic human rights like food security, decent and affordable housing, free and clean water, free healthcare, compulsory and free basic education, affordable public transport, and full employment;
7. to effectively promote the establishment and/or development of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist mass communications systems at the local, national, continental and the global levels, and this includes research and information centres and groups;
8. to effectively promote the re-organization and re-intensification of the Second Liberation Struggle so that it may be better able to give strong and active support to other anti-racist, anti-neo-colonialist, anti-imperialist, anti-capitalist and ecosocialist/socialist forces all over the world, and also to seek effective and maximum solidarity from the same forces;
9. to tirelessly work for the unity of the people of Afrika both on the continent and in the Diaspora, and for the speedy replacement of the African Union with what is usually referred to as the “United States of Africa (USA)”, but which ideally should be known as: “Ecosocialist People’s Republic of Afrika (EPRA)”; and,
10. to effectively support the speedy re-structuring and democratization of the current and unjust international relations system and its neo-colonialist trade regime.
These aims and objectives of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism are being debated, propagated, written about and implemented in different countries and communities, at different levels, in different forms, and at different paces and intensities. They are the issues that concern the overwhelming majority of the poor black people all over the world. In trying to promote and implement these aims and objectives, there is massive opposition from the imperialists and also from the black capitalistic “elites”. There are both hidden and public battles in the domain of global information and ideas. The enemy system comes into the arena with powerful distortions, capitalist and racist stereotypes and myths, confusion and other forms of misinformation and propagandistic manipulation.
Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists, who are here defined as black ecosocialists, are for the total elimination of all forms of oppression and exploitation whether by whites against blacks or by blacks against other blacks or by an alliance of blacks and whites against blacks or whites against other whites or any other people oppressing and exploiting any other people in any part of the world. In other words, revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists are for the elimination of the oppression and exploitation of one race or one nation or one ethnic group or one class or one sex or one person by another in any part of the world. Such an objective can only be realized in a classless society which also can only be fully achieved through the victory of ecosocialism. This is in line with what Marx and Engels described as scientific socialism in the Communist Mainifesto, and is a transitional stage to world communism. As a result, this is why at its advanced stage, the international black liberation struggle should be based on class struggle if the liberation of the overwhelming majority of Afrika’s people both at home and abroad is to be fully achieved. This is also why Kwame Nkrumah who was one of the greatest contributors to the First Liberation Struggle in terms of theory, practice and as a writer, strongly supported scientific socialism.
Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism will and must continue to exist far into the ecosocialist era. This is because when capitalism is defeated and ecosocialist forces take over state power, it will not automatically mean the immediate end of all problems which were caused or supported or tolerated by capitalism. Classes, oppression, exploitation, racial and ethnic discrimination, gender inequality, and other capitalist practices, consequences, values and ways of thinking among many people will always continue to exist for some time in the early stages of the ecosocialist era. Such problems have to be fought and defeated, which is an important aspect of the protracted struggle of the ecosocialist era. The defeat of the capitalist ruling class really means such capitalist problems will no longer be protected and promoted by the state machinery. The process of eliminating such problems can only decisively begin to yield concrete and lasting results during the new struggle for building revolutionary ecosocialism in every country and at the global level.
8. Nationalism, Black Unity and Class Struggle
Nationalism as a feeling or an attitude of oneness in resistance can be fueled by the existence of a foreign threat or invasion and domination. In the case of black people worldwide, it is anti-black racism, foreign cultural and economic domination that keeps nationalism awakened and as a force for politicization and resistance. It promotes black identity, self-confidence, and rejects inferiority complex, and colonial and slave mentality. In terms of the acquisition and development of revolutionary ecosocialist consciousness, the starting point for many black people who are not already above that level is revolutionary nationalism as revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism.
Nationalism usually serves, at a certain stage of the struggle, as an instrument of liberation. But at another stage or at the higher level of the liberation process, and where nationalism has not developed into revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism, nationalism can directly or indirectly become an instrument of capitalism. This happens when the struggle against foreign domination, oppression and exploitation develops to the anti-capitalist stage, which requires class struggle in order to succeed fully. In theory, nationalism is usually neutral in the internal conflict between the local oppressors and the oppressed. This happens when the two sides belong to the same race or ethnicity. Nationalism will only oppose oppression and exploitation if foreigners are carrying it out on their own and without fully involving the local capitalistic “elites” who, in fact may come from the mainstream nationalist movement.
Nationalism by its very nature, cannot accept class struggle because nationalism is for national or racial or ethnic unity even if it means unity between the local oppressors and the oppressed. Nationalist thinking supports the idea that the local black oppressors and the oppressed should not fight each other. They should just unite and live in peace and harmony and as a family. This is also like the peace and harmony found between the rider and his or her horse. It means after defeating the foreign enemy, there should be ideally no struggle against the local oppressors and exploiters.
During the previous era, the struggle seemed to be purely a racial matter to most black people. Nationalism was more largely comfortable and at its best with such a situation. In the current era, and in these early days of the Second Liberation Struggle, more and more black people are beginning to clearly view the issue as one with a dual nature mainly because of the continued existence of racism and the emergence of the growing and well-entrenched black capitalistic ruling “elites”. It is a matter that is increasingly being seen as both a racial and a class issue. This is as far as the black experience in the current era goes. However, as the struggle moves to an advanced stage, its class nature will become easier for more people to understand than before.
Being a revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist, Kwame Nkrumah fully understood that in the next stage of the struggle, which is the Second Liberation Struggle, class struggle would develop into being the main form of struggle. Without class struggle, the black capitalistic ruling “elites” that are in alliance with imperialism will remain in power, and oppression and exploitation of the overwhelming majority will continue. Class struggle does not mean racism no longer exists or that there should be no black unity against it or that there should be no black movements anymore. Class struggle means that all oppressors and exploiters should be fought and removed from power irrespective of their colour or nationality or ethnicity or race. It is at this stage of political development that divisions between revolutionaries and reactionaries become open in the nationalist movement. This means the nationalist movement becomes divided on what to do with the issue of black-on-black oppression and exploitation, which is practiced by the local black capitalist ruling “elites” now operating in alliance with international capitalists.
The revolution has to be waged on many fronts and levels, and so is the struggle for revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist unity and international solidarity. Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists need to pursue unity and solidarity at five main levels. First, there should be unity within the global revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement. Second, every country should have a united Pan-Afrikanist mass movement that may even start as a discussion or study or research or information group with just a few members. Third, every region like Afrika, the Caribbean, the Americas and Europe should have a united and well-co-ordinated structure of the black mass movements. Fourth, there should be unity between anti-imperialist and ecosocialist governments and the global revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement. Fifth, the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement need to operate consciously as an integral part of the worldwide movement of revolutionary movements for the total destruction of world capitalism and its complete replacement by global revolutionary ecosocialism.
Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists need to work at all these five levels of unity simultaneously. If Afrikan unity is based on capitalism, then oppression, exploitation and poverty of the overwhelming majority of black people will continue. Such unity will not serve the liberationist aspirations and interests of the overwhelming majority of the people both inside the continent of Afrika and in the Diaspora. Such Pan-Afrikanists, as part or supporters of the black capitalistic ruling “elites” are an integral part of the enemy system.
When one is fighting for Pan-Afrikanist unity in one’s own country, it does not mean one cannot support and work for regional or continental unity at the same time. If one is working for the unity of revolutionary states in, or the unification of Afrika, it does not mean one cannot work for or is against revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism at the global level at the same time. The correct principle is that there should be unity at all the five levels. Unity of revolutionary states or governments is not enough on its own, so is the unity of black people worldwide in the form of a global mass movement as an NGO on its own. Unity of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists worldwide must of necessity include anti-imperialist and ecosocialist governments.
A unified new Afrika without being fully owned and directed by the global Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist mass movement will be doomed. At the same time, if such a global mass movement does not strive for the creation of a geographical base in the form of a government of revolutionary united states, it will just end up being a powerless and an irrelevant NGO. State power is crucial for such a cause and its movement in the modern international relations system. The global revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement needs a liberated and unified Afrika and the Caribbean as its global geographical bases. This would be there to give open and effective support to the struggles of the black communities in the Diaspora, and as part of the global ecosocialist revolution.
Revolutionary black unity in racist western countries does not prevent black ecosocialists from working with white revolutionaries at other levels of the struggle like in a national ecosocialist party. They need to be members of both. This also applies to women revolutionaries. Belonging to a black movement or women’s organization does not stop a true revolutionary from full participation with revolutionary whites or males at other levels of the struggle. This takes into account the fact that the struggle for the destruction of world capitalism and the building of global revolutionary ecosocialism cannot be achieved by one race or one sex or one country or a group of countries alone. The black or women’s struggles are necessary levels of the struggle for addressing certain issues in this age of anti-black racism, male chauvinism and imperialism.
9. The Second Liberation Struggle
The advent of the post-colonial and post-civil rights era clearly revealed that initially there are certain levels or aspects of the liberation struggle that needed and still need to be fully tackled. The progress made on each of these aspects is bound to be different from country to country. These aspects can be summarized in the following ways:-
In order to take these seven aspects to their logical conclusion, it is necessary to re-intensify the Second Liberation Struggle against capitalism, imperialism, neo-colonialism, Zionism, racism, colonial and slave mentality, environmental degradation and for ecosocialism. Without carrying out this struggle to the bitterest end, the total and irreversible liberation and empowerment of the overwhelming majority of the black people in Afrika and the Black World will not take place.
The fact that there are still overwhelming and complex problems and issues that remain to be addressed by the Second Liberation Struggle in this current era does not mean the previous struggle against colonialism and racism did not achieve anything of any crucial importance. What was achieved was indeed a milestone in the history of black people since it was the first and successfully completed stage in the struggle against foreign domination, oppression and anti-black white racism. It must never be forgotten that the pre-independence and pre-civil rights struggle itself was waged by the people of Afrika and the Black World with total and selfless commitment, unbelievable bravery and great sacrifices. As a momentous and historic step of such a magnitude in the long march to the true and lasting liberation process of the majority of black people all over the world, the pre-independence and pre-civil rights struggle needs to be recognized, respected and saluted by both the present and the future generations of liberationists.
The Second Liberation Struggle in fact started soon after the First Liberation Struggle. It started at various levels and in different forms in Afrika and the Diaspora. It was and still is in the form of often spontaneous, sporadic and unco-ordinated acts of resistance against capitalism, imperialism, neo-colonialism and racism. Such a beginning, to many people who may not have a revolutionary foresight or is seen as futile, irrelevant and not leading anywhere. But since there is a good basis for such a struggle, it will have to eventually lead to somewhere which means to victory and there are many examples for this in history. The struggle has to start somewhere and somehow. Many successful struggles are known to have started in a seemingly disorganized manner but they later grew and became mass movements or parties, and they got better and better organized and more and more co-ordinated as time went on. Such struggles usually start with a few people and then continue to grow until they become highly effective, unconquerable and victorious.
The pace of the Second Liberation Struggle has been painfully slow. It needs to be more re-organized, re-energized, re-intensified, co-ordinated and speeded-up by the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists. The fact that the pace of the development and consolidation of the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist struggle has so far been painfully slow should not be surprising to anyone who cares to look at the history of the development and consolidation of black nationalist and Pan-Afrikanist struggle during the previous era. The pace has to be more or less the same because of various factors including the nature and the power of the enemy, the internal organizational problems, lack of resources, and some strategy and ideological problems in the liberation movements. The pace of the revolutionary process can also be made to slow down or can even be stopped for some time by the efforts and machinations of the international capitalist forces or through the battle-defeats of the revolutionary movement by the enemy system. But no human force can stop such a revolutionary process for ever.
At the beginning of the current era, one of the major and most visible and unfinished businesses of the First Liberation Struggle was the imperialist impact on and control of the newly liberated countries. This was in terms of the imperialist control of the ideological orientation of many black people, the natural resources, international trade and foreign policies. The suffocating and ubiquitous presence of imperialism immediately became one of the most uniting factors in favour of the continuation of the struggle in the form of the Second Liberation Struggle. Imperialism was clearly a crucial aspect of world capitalism and is much easier to understand than capitalism itself as the cause. It is bound to remain as one of the major and easiest targets of the struggle in Afrika and the Black World.
There are many important ways or methods of fighting capitalism and for ecosocialis. Anti-imperialism is one of them and needs to be fully encouraged and supported by all revolutionaries since it is another important level or front for the struggle against the enemy system. It should always be waged in conjunction with all the other aspects and methods of the struggle in order to fully achieve the desired results. On its own, the anti-imperialist struggle does not lead to the destruction of capitalism or to the realization of ecosocialism. There are two main forms of anti-imperialism. One may be only based on nationalism and this is short-term, and not against capitalism, while the other may be based on ecosocialism.
Class struggle based on ecosocialism need to be always recognized as the main method of struggle that can lead to the destruction of capitalism. In an advanced and well-organized revolutionary struggle, the forces involved in various aspects of struggle against the capitalist system need to work as part of or under or in alliance with the ecosocialist party or movement against capitalism in order that real victories can be certain. The anti-imperialist struggle should be waged at both the national and the international levels. This is or can be by local grassroots groups and organizations or by national movements, parties, anti-imperialist governments, and international groups and movements.
During the capitalist and the ecosocialist eras, the enemy of liberation in any country will always be found both internally and externally. In black-ruled countries, the internal enemy, who are the black capitalistic ruling “elites”, has to be dealt with mainly through the local class struggle and the external enemy has to be fought against both locally and internationally through the worldwide anti-imperialist struggle. The local class struggle should be developed into being the main form of struggle for the future success of the ecosocialist revolution. During the process to that level, all other forms and levels of the struggle or attacks against the main enemy have to be encouraged. The struggle may be peaceful or unpeaceful or both. It usually depends on the situation from country to country, especially on the nature of the strategies and tactics of the enemy and the revolutionary leadership. However, terrorism by individuals or groups or organizations or parties or governments should always be condemned and is indefensible. It must be noted that imperialist governments are the biggest perpetrators of terrorism.
10. The Liberation of Black Women
The true and full liberation process of the overwhelming majority of black women is one of the major objectives of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism. The liberation of the majority of women cannot be fully achieved under the capitalist system in any country in the world. Under capitalism, women can successfully struggle and achieve the acceptance or accommodation of only a tiny minority of women into the ruling class. This also applies to all oppressed and exploited people in any country in the world. If they get liberated under the capitalist system, it means only a tiny minority of them can be co-opted because of the class nature of capitalism. The overwhelming majority will still outrageously remain impoverished, oppressed, exploited; and racially marginalized, manipulated, discriminated, disadvantaged, neglected, traumatized and de-humanized by capitalism as the enemy system.
The majority of women will always be an integral part of the overwhelming majority of people who are poor or do not own much or who are oppressed and exploited in every country which is not ecosocialist. How can the majority of black women get out of this class of poor and oppressed majority under the capitalist system? The majority of women do not only suffer from the class nature of capitalist society and anti-black racism but also from male chauvinism by black men. The oppression and exploitation of women is protected and promoted by the system of capitalism through its strategy of divide, rule, oppress and exploit. The struggle for the liberation of women has a long history in all societies. Women are still fighting for their liberation even in countries that call themselves “highly advanced democracies and world models on justice and equality issues” like the USA, Western Europe, Canada and Australia. The answers to the following questions will show that even in such countries the majority of women are still oppressed and exploited.
1. What percentage of women is in decision-making positions?
2. What percentage of women is in Cabinet and Parliament in both the so-called highly democratic and developed countries, and the less developed states in Afrika, Asia and Latin America?
3. How many women, in terms of percentage, can rise to the top in their own right as owners of major business corporations?
4. How are women generally treated in practice, that is, in terms of justice and equality in such industrially developed capitalist countries and in the less developed states?
The liberation of black women will only be fully achieved through the triumph of revolutionary Pan- Afrikanism and ecosocialism. What can happen before then and under capitalism is the co-option of a small percentage of black women into the male-dominated structures of the black capitalistic ruling “elites”. The struggles of women can be either for a few women to get more capitalist crumbs in the “elite” structures or can be for the total liberation of all women from oppression, exploitation, anti-black racism and male chauvinism that are all sustained by the system of capitalism. As to whether the women’s liberation movement is just the interests of the elitist and relatively privileged women to get some crumbs from the capitalist high table or is fully for the majority of women who are at the grassroots level depends on the ideological orientation of the women’s movement and leadership in the country concerned.
It must be emphasized that the struggle for parity for women in decision-making positions as an immediate demand is also of special importance and must be actively supported by all revolutionaries. The women’s struggle has to start somewhere or at some level that is practical or possible in any given country. However, it must be fully understood by the women’s movement that their struggle is an integral part of the wider and revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist and ecosocialist struggle. This is the only genuine and valid option in the true and full liberation process of the overwhelming majority of black women.
11. The Diasporan Afrikans
The role of the Diasporan Afrikans in the struggle in Afrika needs to be clarified in this paper. Afrika has always needed the contribution of the Diasporan Afrikans in its liberation and development processes. Indeed their role was outstanding. Diasporan Afrikans have also always needed Afrika as their ancestral homeland and liberation global base in this age of racism and imperialism. This liberation global base, which should be a liberated united new Afrika, would be essential to their own dignity, liberation struggle, socio-economic empowerment and security wherever they may be residing in the world. As before, they need to remain united in the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement and will become an integral part of the future united revolutionary Afrika.
Apart from directly supporting the struggle in Afrika, the other equally important contribution to the struggle in Afrika, which the Diasporan Afrikans can make, is to fight against capitalism, imperialism and racism, and to build ecosocialism in the countries in which they may be located in the world. This is because capitalism as the enemy is a global system, which can be fought against from and in any country in the world. They have to build alliances with other local revolutionary forces in order for the ecosocialist revolution to succeed in the countries of their residence. They have to directly and effectively contribute to the establishment, survival and growth of the national revolutionary ecosocialist party or movement in their countries of residence.
12. Afrikan-Arab Relations
One of the issues that is of great concern to many black Afrikans is their relationship with Afrikan Arabs and the Arabized black Afrikans. It is an issue that causes a lot of confusion and sometimes even acrimonious debates among black Afrikans. The relationship has both good and bad aspects or levels and here the paper is dealing mainly with the nature of the bad aspects and the way forward. This relationship needs clarification from a revolutionary point of view. The history of the relationship between the black people and the Arabs in Afrika is one of black people being victims of conquest, slavery, racism, cultural Arabization, and political brainwashing, oppression and exploitation by the Arabs as controlled and directed by their own ruling classes. Some Afrikan Arabs even get offended when they are referred to as Afrikans. This is even if they have lived in Afrika for centuries and wish to continue living in Afrika permanently.
Despite the history of the contradictions between black Afrikans and Afrikan Arabs, when the two peoples were conquered and colonized by Europeans, the leaders of the two Afrikan sides eventually united and supported each other in their new struggle for liberation. They had to unite against their new and more powerful common enemy, and this was European colonialism, oppression and racism against both Afrikan Arabs and black Afrikans. This strategy of uniting in the struggle of all colonized or oppressed races or peoples, and all exploited classes in spite of their internal contradictions is always wise and it leads to early victory in the liberation battles. The word “battles” is used here deliberately because the struggle is a permanent process with many battles still to be won in the protracted war for human liberation from oppression and exploitation globally. These battles are not of the same type and have different levels, stages or phases.
Since the end of direct European colonialism and crude racism, the overwhelming majority of both black Afrikans and Arab Afrikans in most countries of Afrika also remain oppressed and exploited by both their own capitalistic ruling class minorities and by imperialism. Under capitalism and imperialism; oppression and exploitation of the overwhelming majority, gender inequality, racism, ethnic chauvinism and conflicts, and foreign economic, political and cultural domination will always continue. There will also always be internal contradictions and conflicts among the oppressed and exploited under capitalism. Such a situation will not change much until capitalist rule is ended in all its forms and manifestations.
Since independence, the capitalistic ruling classes or “elites” of both Arab states and black-ruled countries have been happily united in building the capitalist system in Afrika under the tutelage of western imperialism. They closely work together in various Afrikan continental and international organizations, treaties and systems that are controlled by their imperialist master-partners and mainly for the benefit of the West. All black Afrikan and all Arab Afrikan revolutionaries need to also continue to unite and operate at the level of being one revolutionary ecosocialist force. Such revolutionary unity is necessary for defeating capitalism and creating a non-racial classless society in Afrika. It is during such a process that it will become possible to effectively eliminate racism, ethnic chauvinism, oppression, exploitation and gender inequality. This will also be the most effective way of contributing to the realization of the global ecosocialist revolution without which the success of ecosocialist liberation in individual countries or in groups of countries would remain insecure and easily reversible.
As part of the overall struggle, revolutionary Pan-Afrikanists have to give direct and maximum support to the black struggles against anti-black Arab racism, and for human rights and self-determination in the Arab-ruled countries of Afrika. Arab revolutionaries also need to support the liberation of black people in such countries. All revolutionaries in Afrika have to join and always be trying to push such struggles to the left.
Black revolutionaries in Afrika need to continue to unite at another level with the rest of the black world in order to enhance their struggle against colonial and slave mentality. True Afrikan Arab revolutionaries should support this as they did during the anti-colonial struggle. Arab revolutionaries in Afrika also need to continue to unite at another level with the rest of the Arab world for their struggle against imperialism and anti-Arab western racism to succeed. Black Afrikan revolutionaries should continue to support the Arab anti-imperialist struggle in the Middle East just as they did during the anti-colonial struggle. Indeed the struggle should be fought at many levels in order to succeed early. At the same time, it must always be realized that in the final analysis, and for the lasting and irreversible liberation process to succeed, the struggle will eventually need to be based mainly on class struggle against capitalism and for ecosocialism. This is when such a struggle reaches an advanced stage.
13. Colonial and Slave Mentality
Colonial and slave mentality is one of the major obstacles to revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and the Second Liberation Struggle of Afrika and the Black World. Colonial and slave mentality is usually an unconscious pro-imperialist mindset. It is used as an essential instrument of the capitalist system in the oppression and exploitation of the overwhelming majority of black people internationally. Many black people are victims of the capitalist and racist socialization process and propaganda. The victims of colonial and slave mentality unconsciously suffer from the following problems:- self-hate; inferiority complex; hatred of one’s own culture; excessive love for white and capitalist culture; uncontrollable and desperate desire to imitate and please capitalist whites; social climbing based on bootlicking strategies and tactics; preferring women and children who are lighter in complexion, the lighter the better; lack of concern for or lack of solidarity with the suffering and plight of the overwhelming majority of black people; lack of confidence; political hopelessness; apathy; cynicism; confusion; low expectations; pro-white puppetry; Afro–pessimism; lack of patriotism; and, the need to always regurgitate bourgeois governance concepts and capitalist political parroting.
Another indicative example of the behavior of the victims of colonial and slave mentality is that if, for instance, a French person speaks bad English, some Afrikans will be defensive and say it is because English is not his or her language. If an English person speaks in broken English, some Afrikans will be apologetic and say it is normal that some people are not good even in their own languages and even if they may be highly intelligent people. But if an Afrikan speaks broken English or French, some Afrikans will be offended and say that he is uneducated, stupid and an embarrassing time-waster! They also prefer and feel more at home when they sing or listen to music in the languages of the former colonial masters. They passionately always try to be culturally more European than the Europeans themselves. They prefer to speak in English or French or Arabic or Portuguese in their own houses and some even hate to see their own children speaking in their own Afrikan languages. The victims of colonial and slave mentality are usually found among “educated” people because the educational system is capitalist, imperialist and neo-colonialist oriented both locally and internationally. A minority of the educated people are able to rebel against it, but the majority are not.
Such victims of colonial and slave mentality need to go through a process of mental de-colonization, which requires a massive re-education exercise together with specific information and mass media campaigns in Afrika and internationally among black people. This will enable the mentally liberated black people to effectively participate in the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist struggle rather than to remain opposed or be indifferent to it. This means that revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism should remain as an essential guide and used as a highly effective instrument for speedily advancing the process of wiping out colonial and slave mentality among black people internationally.
14. The Ecosocialist People’s Republic of Afrika (EPRA)
The unity of revolutionary Afrikan governments, the Caribbean states and the global Pan-Afrikanist mass movement should be in the form of what is usually referred to as the “United States of Africa (USA)” or what ideally should be called the “Ecosocialist People’s Republic of Afrika (EPRA)”. This is the primary objective of the revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism. Such a state, which will replace the African Union, would be a united, strong, revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist, ecosocialist, democratic, independent, incorruptible, self-reliant, prosperous, federal and workers’ state. It will have the duty to hasten the liberation and empowerment process of the rest of the Black World. EPRA itself will also constitute an invincible base for and will serve as a heroic and great contribution to the speedy realization of global revolutionary ecosocialism.
There is as yet no agreed future name for the African Union when it is fully replaced as envisaged here. Whatever the future name will be, it should not be a mere imitation of the capitalist and imperialist European Union (EU) as in the name: “African Union (AU)” or the United States of America (USA)” like in the name: “United States of Africa (USA)”. As a temporary measure and for convenience purposes, the description “Ecosocialist People’s Republic of Afrika” is here used as the name of the proposed state. However, when the time comes there will be many suggestions for the future name of this federal ecosocialist state of Afrika. A formal decision will have to be made using the appropriate procedures and levels of decision-making.
15. Who is an Afrikan?
In the movement and circles for revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and the Second Liberation Struggle, the term “Afrikan” is understood to usually mean all black people worldwide. This includes all people of Afrikan origin who are considered to be non-white. The term “Afrikan Diaspora” or “Diasporan Afrikans” means all Afrikan descendants, immigrants and students from Afrika. Therefore this means all black people who live either temporarily or permanently outside Afrika are Afrikans. The words “Afrikan” and “black” are usually used interchangeably since they are taken to mean the same thing. This will remain unchanged as long as anti-black racism, imperialism and neo-colonialism continue to exist in the world. However, this does not mean all non-black people who live in Afrika permanently are not free to become citizens of Afrika or to call themselves Afrikan, if they so wish. The non-black people who should be most welcome in Afrika are those who understand and identify with the plight and the liberationist aspirations of the oppressed, exploited and impoverished majority. After all, it is not sensible or necessary or practical to drive all the black people outside Afrika back to Afrika, or to drive out all non-black people from Afrika!
Many revolutionaries and other well meaning people may genuinely not understand why it is necessary to emphasize the Pan-Afrikanist or the black nature of the struggle if one professes to be an ecosocialist and a revolutionary internationalist. Why not just use the phrase: “ecosocialist struggle”? The reason is that the Pan-Afrikanist or the black nature of the struggle is important to emphasize because of the world-wide anti-black white racism which must also be addressed both during the struggle to destroy capitalism and in the process of building ecosocialism.
Although the struggle against capitalism and for ecosocialism is global, the Afrikan part of this struggle needs to retain its Afrikan context and characteristics for it to be relevant and effectual in this age of imperialism, neo-colonialism and racism. This is also why it is acceptable to refer to the “Chinese” or “British” or “French” or “European” or “feminist” revolutionaries without implying that they are not revolutionary internationalists. It is just that the revolutionary process in any country or by any people is bound to have its own history, characteristics and historical context.
16. Why Afrika With a “K”
Afrika is here spelt with a “k” just as some people may prefer to spell the word organisation with an “s” and others may use “z”. While spelling Afrika with a “k” may be irritating to the imperialists and their supporters, it should definitely not be a problem to any revolutionaries. This is because in the first place: who decided this continent should be named Africa and with “c”? The European imperialists did. But does that make it sacrosanct? Many people say that the name “Africa” came from the ancient Egyptian word “Afru-ika” meaning “motherland”. It must be noted that “Afru-ika” has “k” and not “c”. Many Afrikan languages like Shona and Swahili also spell Afrika with a “k” and not “c”. In any case, people should be free to spell certain words or choose language styles or define concepts or make presentations or express themselves in the way they feel can most effectively communicate their messages or feelings to their chosen audiences or constituents.
17. The Worldwide Pan-Afrikanist Debate
The Second Liberation Struggle came with the intensification of the worldwide debate within what may best be called the Global Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist Movement (GRPM). This is also known as the black movement or the Pan-Afrikanist movement or the black liberation movement. The debate is on the future of Afrika and the Black World in the context of world capitalism versus global revolutionary ecosocialism. The aim is to clearly reveal and record how far each of these ideologies, that is, world capitalism and global revolutionary ecosocialism causes or promotes or tolerates or effectively fights against imperialism, neo-colonialism, oppression, exploitation, corruption, racism and will decisively reverse environmental degradation. The debate should go deeply into what kind of liberation struggle will successfully liberate and empower the overwhelming majority of black people all over the world against the interests of the black capitalistic leadership, capitalism, imperialism, neo-colonialism and racism.
GRPM is an unstructured and informal grouping of parties, movements, organizations, unions, institutions, associations, networks, groups and individual activists that are interested in the struggle for the unity of the people of Afrika and its Diaspora, and the liberation and empowerment of the poor majority. These revolutionary forces promote and champion revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and the Second Liberation Struggle. Most of them are anti-racist, anti-imperialist, anti-neo-colonialist, but not always clearly anti-capitalist and for ecosocialism. The smaller, but fast-growing grouping in GRPM is not only anti-racist and anti-imperialist, but also clearly anti-capitalist and for ecosocialism.
The debate should help to achieve the following:-
1. The updating, popularization and consolidation of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism to the extent that it will become a major and dependable global force for ecosocialism, which has to be reckoned with in the mainstream world revolutionary movement.
2. The moving forward of the struggle in terms of organizational structures, revolutionary unity, solidarity, effective strategies and tactics that can lead to the defeat of capitalism in the whole of Afrika and the Black World.
4. The strengthening of the efforts to re-equip, re-inspire, re-energize, and thus re-enhance the performance of the global revolutionary Pan-Afrikanist mass movement.
The guiding principle of the debate should be that either Afrika and the Black World will fully wage the Second Liberation Struggle of Afrika and the Black World based on revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism, and global revolutionary ecosocialism, or else the overwhelming majority of black people worldwide will forever continue to be the wretched of the earth and the under-dog of the human race.
18. Notes and Bibliography
1) Africa must Unite (First published in 1963)
These books and many more by Nkrumah, including the latest editions are obtainable from Panaf Books in London which is a publishing house established by Nkrumah himself in 1968. Brief summaries and other details of all his books can be viewed at www.panafbooks.com through which they can also be ordered. However, there are also many other important contributions which support, clarify and update the revolutionary thinking about, and/or are relevant to the new phase of the struggle against capitalism and its policies that include imperialism, neo-colonialism and racism in the current era. Both this writer and AGN may not necessarily agree with all the contents of these contributions, but they are all considered so important that they cannot be left fromthis list. These contributions are mainly in the form of books, articles and documents. They give the information background, explanation and justification to the basis, nature and development of revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism, the Second Liberation Struggle in the post-colonial and post-civil rights era and global revolutionary ecosocialism. They are here listed as follows:-
11) Jere- Malanda, Regina: “Profiting from Poverty – How Western Companies and Consultants Exploit Africa”, an article published in the magazine, New African, London, November 2007, Number 467
12) Duodu, Cameron: “Who Promotes Corruption in Africa?”, an article published in the magazine, New African, London, November 2009, Number 489
13) Smith, Patrick: “Africa Must Unite!” (Heeding Nkrumah’s cry and as required by economic imperatives of modern times), an article published in the magazine, The Africa Report, Paris, February 2011, Number 27
14) Boateng, Asei: “Cracking the Code” (Unlocking Africa’s Secret to Wealth), an article published in the magazine, New African, London, April 2011, Number 505. (This article was a review of several books such as “How Rich Countries Got Rich---and Why Poor Countries Stay Poor” by Erik S Reinert, 2007; and “Bad Samaritans: The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Properity” by Ha – Joon Chang, 2007
15) Soludo, Chukwuma: “From Berlin to Brussels: How Europe is Undermining African Development”, an article published in the magazine, New African, London, April 2012, Number 516
16) “10 years of the AU – What has it Achieved?”, a collection of articles and speeches published in the New African, London, July 2012, Number 519 (Especially the speeches by Kwame Nkrumah in 1963 and the by Julius Nyerere in 1997)
17) Morgan, M.J: “Deals and Dirty Tricks Bleeding Africa Dry”, an article published in the magazine, New African, London, June 2013, Number 529
18) Mboya, Elvis; “Africa: Making others rich”, an article which was reproduced from the CNN in Southern Times, 20th August, 2013, Windhoek, Namibia
19) “Solving the Great Conundrum” (How Africa Can Own its Resources – A Cover Story), published as a collection of articles in the magazine, New African, London, February 2014, Number 536
21) Saul, Johns S: Liberation Lite (The Roots of Recolonization in Southern Africa) Three Essays Collective, Haryana, India, 2011
22) Chimutengwende, Chen: an article on “The Danger of Neo-colonialism in Zimbabwe”, published in the journal, The Social Scientist, Volume 5, Issue Number 53, New Delhi, 1976
23) Toure, Ahmed Sekou: Africa On the Move, Panaf Books, London, 1977
24) Chimutengwende, Chen: a paper on, “Neo-colonialism as Plan B of Imperialism”, written on December 10, 2014 and published in the “Special Documents” section of www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com
25) Chimutengwende, Chen; South Africa: The Press and the Politics of Liberation, Barbican Books, London, 1978
26) Chimutengwende, Chen: “The Role of Communication Education in the Development and Democratization of African Society”, African Media Review, Vol. 2, No.2, 1987, Nairobi
27) Dag Hammerskjold Foundation; The State and the Crisis in Africa: In search of a Second Liberation (Proceedings of the conference held in Mweya, Uganda, 12-17 May, 1992), published in Uppsala
28) Thompson, Austin: “Towards a Second wave of the Liberation Struggle”, (Proceedings of the Pan-African Youth Summit held in Dakar, Senegal on May 28 and 29, 2010), published as an article in liberation News on June 7, 2010 the newspaper of the Party for Socialism and Liberation, USA. (http://www.pslweb.org/liberationnews/news/10-06-07-new-west-african-alliance-vows-html)
29) Babu, Abdulrahman Mohamed : An undated paper which must have been produced around 1992 on “An Economic Strategy for the Second Liberation of Africa”, published under the “Special Documents” section of: www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com
30) Sangara, Thomas: Women’s Liberation and the African Freedom Struggle, Pathfinder Press, Washington DC, 2007
31) Revolutionary Workers Headquaters: Build the Black Liberation Movement, Pole Publications, Chicago,1981
32) Asante, Molefi Kete: The Afrocentric Manifesto, Polity Press, Cambridge, UK, 2008
34) Olsson, Goran, (Editor): The Black Power Mixtape (1967-1975), Haymarket Books, Chicago, 2014
35) Foner, Philip S., (Editor): The Black Panthers Speak, Haymarket Books,
36) Shawki, Ahmed: Black Liberation and Socialism, Haymarket Books, Chicago, 2006
37) Dayo, F Gore; Theoharis, Jeane; and, Woodard, Komozi, (Editors): Want to Start a Revolution? Radical Women in the Black Freedom Struggle, New York University Press, New York, 2009
38) Shakur, Assata; Assata: An Auto biography, Zed Books, London 1987
39) Williams, Chancellor; The Destruction of Black Civilization: Great Issues of Race from 4500 BC to 2000 AD, Third World Press, Chicago, 1992
40) Chimutengwende, Chen: A paper on, “From Pan-Afrikanism to Revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism”, written on May 15, 2014 and published in the “Special Documents” section of www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com
41) Chimutengwende, Chen: “Pan-Africanism and the Second Liberation Struggle of Africa”, an article published in Review of International Affairs, volume XL V11, 15 December, 1996, Belgrade. (The same article was also published with some modifications in Race and Class, a journal of the Institute of Race Relations, volume 38, January-March 1997, London; and as a chapter in The Making of the Africa-Nation, a book edited by Professor Mammo Muchie, Adonis Abbey Publishers, London, 2003. The article also appeared in numerous websites all over the world.)
42) Nehusi, Kimani: “Mental Enslavement” (Unlocking the chains of mental slavery), 2003 (http://www.africanholocaust.net/html_ah/mentalenslavement.html)
43) Chimutengwende, Chen: “Towards the 8th Pan-African Congress”, a paper published in African Renaissance, volume 3. No. 1, January/February, 2006, a journal of Adonis Abbey Publishers, London
44) Connolly, James: Socialism and Nationalism, (eBook) Nuvision Publications, South Dakota, 2004
45) Winning the War Against Humiliation (Report of the independent commission on Africa and the challenges of the third millennium), sponsored by UNDP and headed by Albert Tevoedjre, published by the UNDP, 2002
47) Chang, Ha-Joon; Bad Samaritans:The Guilty Secrets of Rich Nations and the Threat to Global Prosperity, Random House, London, 2007
48) Perkins, John: Confessions of an Economic Hit Man, Berrett-Koehler Publishers, San Francisco, USA, 2004
49) Nabudere, Dan: The Political Economy of Imperialism, Tanzania Publishing House, Dar-es salaam, and ZED Press, London, 1977
50) Nyangoni, W. W: The Western Media and the Third World, The Centre for Development and Global Studies and Msasa Publications, Massachusetts, USA, 1992
51) Nyangoni, W. W: Development and Underdevelopment, (The political economy of exploitation in North-South Relations), The Centre for Development and Global studies and Msasa Publications, Massachusetts 1995)
52) Nyangoni, W. W: Global Capitalism and the Developing World, The Centre for Development and Global Studies and Msasa Publications, Massachusetts, USA, 1998
53) Dorling, Danny: Inequality and the 1%, Verso Books, London, 2014
54) Rubin, Daniel: Can Capitalism Last? International Publishers, New York, 2014
56) Klein, Naomi: This Changes Everything: Capitalism VS. The Climate, Simon&Schuster, New York, 2014
57) Ian Angus (editor): The Global Fight for Climate Justice, Resistance Books, London, 2009
58) Lebowitz, Michael A: Build It Now: Socialism of the 21st Century, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2006
59) Lebowitz, Michael A: The Socialist Alternative (Real Human Development), Monthly Review Press, New York, 2010
60) Lowy, Michael: An essay on, “What Is Ecosocialism?” Translated by Eric Canepa, published in the journal, Capitalism Nature Socialism, volume 16, Number 2, June 2005
61) Angus, Ian: An interview on “Why Ecosocialism? Some Comments on a Word-An unnecessary addition to left vocabulary? www.climateand capitalism.com/category/ecosocialism-organizations/
62) Wall, Dereck; The Rise of the Green Left: Inside the Worldwide Ecosocialist Movement, Pluto Books, London, 2010
63) Chimutengwende, Chen: A paper on “Global Revolutionary Ecosocialism”, written on April 20, 2010 and published in the “Special Documents” section of www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com
64) Kovel, Joel: The Enemy of Nature: The End of Capitalism or the End of the World? Zed Books, London, 2002.
65) Foster, John Bellamy: Marx’s Ecology-Materialism and Nature, Monthly Review Press, New York, 200066) Domínguez, Esteban Morales: Race in Cuba (Essays on the Revolution and Racial Inequality), edited and translated under the direction of Gary Prevost and August Nimtz, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2013
67) Lebowitz, Michael A; “Proposing a Path to Socialism: Two Papers for Hugo Chávez”, published as Review of the Month, Monthly Review Press, New York, 2014
68) Cabral, A: “The Weapon of Theory”, an address delivered to the first Tricontinental Conference of the Peoples of Asia, Africa and Latin America held in Havana in January, 1966 and published in: www.marxists.org/subject/africa/cabral/1966/weapon-theory.html
69) Marx and Engels: The Communist Manifesto (modern Edition), Verso Books, London, 1998
70) Eagleton, Terry: Why Marx Was Right, Yale University Press, New Haven, 2011
71) Lenin, Vladimir: Essential Works of Lenin: What is to Be Done? and Other Writings, Dover Publications, New York, 1987
19. Recommended Links
20. Feedback and Re-publishing
In order to promote the worldwide debate on the issues in this paper and the swift mass dissemination of revolutionary ideas and information, comrades, sisters, brothers and friends are hereby encouraged to freely re-print, re-distribute and re-publish this paper with credit to this writer and the Afrika Global Network and please also let us know. Please note that no re-editing of this paper is allowed.
21. About the Author
Comrade Chen Chenhamo Chakezha Chimutengwende is a Senator, Deputy President of the Zimbabwe Senate and Chairman of Committees therein, and Member of the Pan-African Parliament (PAP) of the African Union and Head of the Zimbabwe Delegation to the PAP. He has been a Member of the Zimbabwe Parliament for 24 years during which time he was also a Government Minister who covered three Ministries for 14 years up to December 2008. Hon. Chimutengwende is the Chairman of Afrika Global Network (AGN) and the Editor of its website. AGN is an international and independent network for research, information and communications work for promoting the international black liberation process in the 21st century that is based on revolutionary Pan-Afrikanism and global revolutionary ecosocialism (www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com).
Cde Chimutengwende was elected in 1996 for a two year-term as President of the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change. This was in Geneva at a UN conference of Ministers of Environment and Heads of Delegation to the conference. In 1997 he was elected as Chairman of the United Nations High Level Environmental Committee of Ministers and Senior Officials. This was in New York at the UN General Assembly meeting of Ministers of Environment and Heads of Delegation to that meeting. He was elected to these posts during the time he was the Zimbabwe Minister for Environment and Tourism. He is a former Senior Lecturer in Journalism and International Affairs, and Deputy Director of the Journalism Programme of the International Press Institute at City University in London. He is also a former Director and Senior Lecturer in Journalism and Mass Communications of the School of Journalism at the University of Nairobi.
He holds an M.A. degree from the University of Bradford, School of Peace Studies, in UK where his area of special interest was “Mass Communications in Peaceful and Conflictual Situations in Politics”. His dissertation was published as a book entitled, South Africa: The Press and the Politics of Liberation, Barbican Books, London, 1978. Having been sponsored by ZANU, he received his military and ideological training in 1964/5 under the Ghanaian Army in Ghana during Dr Kwame Nkrumah’s time. The training was carried out by experts from the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. Cde Chimutengwende is widely travelled and extensively published. He was born on 28 August, 1943 in Zimbabwe.
22. Contact details
Cde Senator Chen Chimutengwende
Afrika Global Network
United Afrika Farm
P.O. Box BW280, Borrowdale, Harare, Zimbabwe.
AGN Website: www.afrikaglobalnetwork.com
E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org or email@example.com or firstname.lastname@example.org
Mobile: +(263) 712 800 111 or 733 800 111 or 0772 800 111 or 773 800 111
Issued on March 20, 2015
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